- Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs): A partnership where private sector partners, the European Union and, where appropriate, other partners, such as public sector bodies, commit to jointly support the development and implementation of a research and innovation programme or activities
- Joint Technology Initiatives (JTIs): Public-private partnerships for performing research at European Union level with dedicated structures, used as a strategy of implementing Horizon 2020 to support, in a limited number of cases, initiatives that could not be implemented efficiently, using the other R&D funding mechanisms.
- Joint Undertakings (JUs): The dedicated structure chosen to implement the JTIs are the Joint Undertakings, independent legal entities that manage research projects in an integrated way, with industry joining forces with other stakeholders. JUs have a dedicated budget and staff and provide a framework for the public and private players to work and take decisions together. They organise calls for proposals, oversee selection procedures and put in place contractual arrangements for projects set up to implement the JTI research agenda. Each JU includes a Governing Board, an Executive Director as well as other bodies, including advisory bodies, depending on its specific operational and governance needs.
- Contractual Public-Private Partnerships (cPPPs): cPPPs are based on roadmaps for research and innovation activities which are the result of an open consultation process and which have been positively evaluated by the European Commission with the help of independent experts. In contrast to the Joint Technology Initiatives (JTIs), the contractual PPPs do not organise their own calls but funding is awarded by the Commission through open calls under the Horizon 2020 Work Programme.
Joint Technology Initiatives in Transport
Clean Sky is the most ambitious aeronautical research programme ever launched in Europe. Its mission is to develop breakthrough technologies to significantly increase the environmental performances of airplanes and air transport, resulting in less noisy and more fuel efficient aircraft, hence bringing a key contribution in achieving the Single European Sky environmental objectives
Shift2Rail will be the first European rail joint technology initiative to seek focused research and innovation (R&I) and market-driven solutions by accelerating the integration of new and advanced technologies into innovative rail product solutions. Shift2Rail will promote the competitiveness of the European Rail Industry and will meet the changing EU transport needs.
The SESAR Joint Undertaking (SJU) was created under European Union law on 27 February 2007, with Eurocontrol and the European Union as founding members, in order to ensure the modernisation of the European air traffic management system by coordinating and concentrating all relevant research and development efforts in the Union
Contractual Public-Private Partnerships in Transport
The European Green Vehicles Initiative is a contractual public-private partnership dedicated to delivering green vehicles and mobility system solutions which match the major societal, environmental and economic challenges ahead. With a focus on the energy efficiency of vehicles and alternative powertrains, the EGVI PPP aims at accelerating research, development and demonstration of technologies allowing the efficient use of clean energies in road transport